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Roundup 9-9-2016

September 9, 2016


Transportation – Of Roads, Bigger and Smaller

— TBX Crossing

— Road Diet

— Conclusion

Transportation – Persistently Accomplishing Nothing I, Cont Some More

Transportation – Just a Thought

Economy – Low Unemployment, Low Wages

Governance/Politics – Act Before Knowing

— Water, Water

— More Half Measures

Transportation – Red Light Cameras

TIA – One More

— ULCC’s

Meanwhile, In the Rest of the Country


Transportation – Of Roads, Bigger and Smaller

As usual, there was news of roads this week.

— TBX Crossing

There was a report in the Business Journal about FDOT’s talking tour on TBX.

The Florida Department of Transportation did not address a major point of contention in its quarterly update on the controversial Tampa Bay Express project to the Hillsborough County Metropolitan Planning Organization.

A presentation Tuesday listed “mitigation” as a key concern among residents, but failed to highlight strategies for limiting the number of homes and businesses demolished to make way for highway expansions.

We don’t really want to get into the whole article.  You can read it here. Our interest is mainly in this:

During a recent community presentation at Robert Saunders Library in Ybor City FDOT staff described the meetings as an opportunity to update residents on the plan’s progress and to show how the department has responded to community concerns over aesthetics and noise. Participants were given a short form to offer any additional comment.

FDOT’s update Tuesday also exposed some new concerns. Its expansive plans to activate space beneath the interstate could be a burden to the City of Tampa.

“The city does take a double hit here,” said Tampa City Council member Lisa Montelione.

On one hand, the city is losing property tax revenue from properties FDOT acquires to pave the way for TBX. On the other, it is being asked to foot the bill for ongoing maintenance costs associated with additional public space.

Montelione also pointed out that even though FDOT slides depicted underpasses cast in literal light with glowing images of skate parks and public art, the walls surrounding the interstate make for a “dirty, dingy and unwelcoming” space.

The revised TBX plan includes at least two key connections reconnecting neighborhoods near Robles Park. One underpass would connect the neighborhoods on the east and west of I-275 for vehicular traffic. Another would connect it for bicycle and pedestrians. It solves a problem long criticized by the creation of highways – that splitting neighborhoods leads to the impoverization of some areas.

First, we don’t know what road they are going to reconnect near Robles Park, but we can look at the connections there now.  This is what Floribraska looks like today.  Note that TBX will make the highway wider.

Maybe they will make the whole road elevated so it is not a claustrophobic (though that would be really expensive and very disruptive).  A fully elevated road would be similar to the area near Franklin, which looks like this.  That is a bit better but hardly inviting.  Also note that this part of the interstate will be twice as wide under TBX.

Theoretically, they could raise the whole thing by about 20 feet to make it a little more inviting, but that is unlikely and will be incredible disruptive (not to mention getting into view corridors).  More likely, the cut-through will be like Central Avenue, which looks like this.  (And if you want to see what the beautified underpasses look like, this is Armenia under construction – though note that the median where the sunlight comes in will be covered by TBX. )

Note that all those connections are already there today – and none of them are inviting or really bustling right around the interstate because that is not what interstates do.  Second, as we said, the interstate is slated to be about twice as wide, so less inviting in all those places.

As we have said many times, the interstate in the Tampa Bay area needs upgrading.  (We also think FDOT should be looking at an east-west road in Pasco and focusing on making the whole Selmon-Gandy-275 connection a real highway).  A fully elevated road is better than simply walling off the city with a highway, like this in Tampa Heights. Nevertheless, it cannot be denied that a few extra overpasses will not mitigate the damage from increasing the width (sometimes doubling) of the interstate, especially as it does not even double capacity (far from it will express lanes designed to limit capacity).  How that enhances the urban areas of Tampa and fits the InVision Tampa plan is beyond us, unless the InVision Tampa plan is fatally flawed.

And, of course, there is no transit in the TBX plan.  Yes, there is a study:

Montelione also raised concerns over one of the only transit-oriented solutions in TBX. Critics complained the plan is too roads-focused. FDOT officials pointed to a premium transit study it was funding for the Hillsborough Area Regional Transit authority as well as a fortified portion of the Howard Frankland Bridge that could be used for future transit options like light rail.

But the build roads first/plan later idea is not the same thing as a coordinated, integrated transportation system.  Yet, once again, the real fault lies with local officials who, through inaction, have allowed this situation to come to pass.

— Road Diet

Which brings us to Palm Avenue.

In a city that often grapples with gridlock during rush hour, construction crews are busily narrowing four-lane Palm Avenue, a main thoroughfare connecting Ybor City to the neighborhoods along the Hillsborough River.

Workers are creating grassy medians and adding left turn lanes, bike lanes and mid-block pedestrian crosswalks along Palm from Nebraska Avenue to Tampa Street.

In a separate project expected to begin this month, workers will add on-street parking, crosswalks and bike lanes on Palm between Tampa Street and North Boulevard and install roundabouts at the intersections of Highland and North Boulevard.

The redesign of Palm is an attempt to even the playing field in the tug-of-war between motorists and their slower fellow travelers: pedestrians and bicyclists. It’s one of a number of streets around downtown Tampa undergoing a makeover to slow traffic and make the roads safer for walking and bicycling, a process called “road diets.”


“We’re not trying to congest or slow down the traffic to where it’s bumper to bumper,” said Jean Duncan, director of Tampa’s Transportation and Stormwater Services Department. Rather, she said, the road designers’ aim is to keep cars from exceeding the 30 mph speed limit.

Which is hard to square with this:

As to the “road diet,” research has shown that when motorists see pedestrians, bicyclists and even grassy median strips, they tend to slow down. Drivers see they are now in a residential environment, Duncan said, and become “more cognizant of how they’re driving.”

And driving slower.  Slowing traffic is a major part of the whole road diet idea. If they want people to drive slower, then say it.  If they don’t, don’t choke the roads.

Setting aside the rhetorical mess, we are not against road diets, provided there are the proper conditions and there is a comprehensive plan with real transit (buses will just clog up a road with one lane in each direction).  However, that is not what is going on.  There is a push to bring ever more people into the area (including the Heights).  There is TBX to dump more cars into the area, at least in theory, as well as push people to surface roads, which are already congested.  And there is no good access road for all the people who will live and work in the Heights (provided it gets built), and no one knows what the real requirements will be if and when that gets built.  In other words, the proper conditions for a road diet are not there now (they may never be met), so why do it now?

Brad Matthews, who lives in Longwood but grew up in the neighborhood, said he doesn’t understand why the city is narrowing the road. Once the river area is fully developed and those residents want to go back and forth to Ybor City, “it’s basically going to be a traffic nightmare,” he said.

“When it comes to that point, they’re going to have to change it and turn it back into a four-lane.”

Stephanie Gallego, who works at busy Palm Avenue Sandwich Shop, said it takes a lot longer to make the eastbound trek along Palm from Florida Avenue when coming to work in the morning.

“Everybody’s going everywhere, and they’re all stuck,” she said.

Told that the purpose was to get cars down to 30 mph, she said, “right now we’re under 20 (mph).”

Exactly.  There are almost no transportation options for the Heights or others in the area traveling east and west (or even to get to north-south roads).  There is no real transit, not even a firm plan for it.  (And even if the City would like to put the streetcar near Palm, it is not going there anytime soon, so why spend the money just to change it later?)  There are not the conditions for and really no point in a road diet right now. (But there is this streetscape under the interstate.)

What makes sense is developing a proper transportation plan then creating the conditions to implement the plan. Then changing Palm may make sense.  Now it doesn’t.

— Conclusion

Building the whole of TBX without considering that has happened in the last 20 years makes no sense (and the full TBX makes no sense period).  Doing a road diet without considering the conditions necessary to make a road diet work (and coincidentally express lane theory and road diet theory both really require proper transit to really work) makes no sense.

We will say it again: what we need is a comprehensive, coordinated transportation system.  We are nowhere near that.

Transportation – Persistently Accomplishing Nothing I, Cont Some More

Speaking of not having a comprehensive, coordinated transportation system (or even a plan for one), there was more from the County Commission this week:

A Hillsborough County commissioner whose vote has helped sway the fate of several major transportation proposals this year is now offering a last-minute alternative of his own to pay for much-needed road work.

Once again – just road work. So what is his idea?

Commissioner Al Higginbotham wants the board to commit $600 million of the county budget over the next 10 years to transportation, starting with $35 million in 2017 and increasing the amount by $5 million each year after. Safety projects and back maintenance would get top priority.

* * *

While it would mean less money over the next decade if approved, Higginbotham’s proposal would put more toward transportation initially — $120 million during the first three years. Murman’s proposal would bring in about $820 million, but more than half would come in the final three years of the 10-year plan, according to county projections, and about $90 million in the first three years.

Under both scenarios, future boards could vote to override these transportation allocations. Higginbotham, though, requires a supermajority of commissioners, five of seven, to deviate from his plan.

In other words, this is just another gesture without substance (though it takes 5 of 7 Commissioners to not spend the money, but if that gives you comfort you have not lived here long).  If the County wanted to spend money, they could have just spent the money.  Nothing was stopping them but them – which is the giant flaw in this “plan.” to spend money on road safety, just spend money on road safety.

In the event, of course, the Commission passed the “plan.”

Hillsborough County commissioners voted unanimously Thursday to dedicate $600 million to transportation spending over the next decade. 

Of course, this dedication is not exactly firm because they can always not spend the money next year or any year after that.

And it certainly wasn’t this:

The vote is the culmination of three years of debate on how to pay for billions of dollars in transportation needs here. Earlier this year the county rejected a half-cent surcharge in the sales tax that would’ve raised an average of $117 million a year, or $3.5 billion over the next 30 years.

Right, years of debate and all we get is a hollow gesture.  Even if they allocate all the money contemplated, it does not really cover much more than the costs of maintenance and resurfacing of what we already have. To quote the Go Hillsborough executive summary (that they all worked on) @ pg 5:

With the existing ½ percent CIT now nearly fully committed and only two cents of every County property tax dollar committed to transportation, there is $750 million in unmet road maintenance and safety needs.

That is telling.

Really, we have no problem with resurfacing and maintaining the roads.  The County should have been doing that for a long time. It is basic maintenance that the Commission has neglected for years.  (The real question is what have they been doing with that money all this time?) The problem is that Commissioners will try to hold this out as actually fixing transportation, when it is doing nothing of the sort. All the problems are still there. There is nothing about the continuing deficient planning, lack of transit, and overall lack of vision. (Not to mention the amounts under discussion is only a down payment on the problems the Commission has created.)

“This is a short-term solution,” Murman said. “We all know where we’re heading when you get the premium transit plan back. We have to go to the voters at some point with this robust, multimodul transit plant that’s going to come in front of us.”

Actually, they probably have no idea where they are going.

Then again, there are no excuses (at least not good ones) to not dedicate any other transportation funding to transit.

Transportation – Just a Thought

Way back in the 1980’s, when the Harbour Island people mover (which was actually more a horizontal elevator) was built, there was an idea floating around to build a monorail in Tampa as a transit system. To some degree, the idea made sense.  You cannot not build a subway (at least not without breaking every bank) because of the water table and soil, and it is always better to get out of traffic – which makes transit faster and safer.  And there was the example of Disney to always look at.  In fact, the County even held some public meetings, though we cannot find any record of them online.  Eventually, the idea went away – at least publicly.

This week, there was a column in the Times that brought it up again.

I also recently had a chat with Tom Hall about all that. He is the co-founder of the giant Tucker/Hall public relations firm, and despite the critics — or maybe because of them — he isn’t afraid to think big. We need more of that.

He talked about a monorail system that would link downtown Tampa to St. Petersburg, Brandon, USF, south and east Hillsborough, and so on.

“We will never solve our problems if we don’t get people out of their cars,” he said.

We interrupt this column to deliver paper bags to some of the more excitable readers, who I am certain now are getting ready to hyperventilate. You know the ones I mean.

I get Hall’s point, though. Since the demise of “Go Hillsborough” — the ambitious but flawed proposal for a transportation sales tax referendum — nothing should be off the table.

It is time to consider everything — one rail, two rails, a whole bunch of buses and, yes, extra roadways.

That includes the Florida Department of Transportation’s $6 billion TBX plan, which I don’t particularly like because of the proposed express toll lanes that most folks won’t be able to afford. Parts of the plan might work, though.

It’s worth noting that Hall isn’t alone in his interest in monorails. Feasibility studies are under way in three suburban cities around Atlanta to see if they would work. Monorails are common throughout China and other nations.

Could it work in Tampa? It is worth at least investigating — maybe with a private developer.

I think that’s what voters were saying, too. They were saying we need people in charge willing to tune out the noise from those who take joy in thinking small and shouting what can’t be done.

Among elevated rail systems, the one built in Miami (elevating heavy rail) is about the most expensive and we do not favor that.  Monorails should be cheaper and have a smaller footprint on the street, which means they can go more places.

Setting aside the political issues (like local officials do not seem particularly interested in really solving our transportation issues), there is a question of cost.  It is actually quite hard to find out how much it costs per mile to build a monorail.  Part of that is because there have not been that many built in the United States. (You can see some monorail news here).  Also, monorail is a relatively vague term that can include a number of technologies (and many people use it for systems that are not monorail).  You can go here for a list of various costs per mile/kilometer for a number of systems over a number of years. The range is from maybe $20 million/km to $88 million/mile, but because of the time, geographic, and other factors, it really is not dispositive.  (Honolulu is building an elevated train – it does not look like a monorail – that is very expensive. )

If, and it is a big if, the cost of monorail were around $100 million/mile, that would be in line with the $480 million downtown to Westshore (because it is probably only going to the Westshore multimodal center rather than the airport) concept the City raised with Go Hillsborough.  It would be faster, out of traffic, not stuck in the median of the interstate, and more readily expandable (and it can always be built at grade where practicable).

We are all for thinking big.  However, we are also cognizant that there are cost issues.  Obviously, if there is a way to build a system that is within the normal range of cost but gives you the benefits of being out of traffic and surface restrictions, that would be great.  We are not sure if you can do it, but it should be investigated.  But whether the present officials, who seem less than serious about studying anything involving transportation, will do anything is another question.

Economy – Low Unemployment, Low Wages

There was an interesting report in the Times that just made clearer something we already knew.

Often the key benchmark used to assess the strength of the labor market is the unemployment rate.

But in a Labor Day-timed snapshot on how Florida workers are faring, researchers at Florida International University zeroed in on two other numbers: $39,099 and $28,236.

The first is the average annual salary in Florida; the second figure is the median annual salary in the state, meaning half of Floridians make more than that amount and half make less.

In a report being released today, the researchers say the huge difference between the average and median salaries shows that there are some high-wage earners skewing the results. It may mask just how many people are in the low-wage category statewide.

Turns out about 65 percent of workers earn less than the average salary of $39,099, with many of them facing “limited opportunities for economic mobility in their existing professions,” the report concludes.

As we have noted over and over, having low unemployment is good. And we are creating more higher paying jobs, but higher is relative.  When your base wages are so low, you don’t need that much to have higher wages.  As with so many things, we are doing better, but we are way behind.

Governance/Politics – Act Before Knowing

In the last few weeks, the City Council has done some interesting things.

— Water, Water

First, the Council finally began to address the stormwater drainage issue that has plagued, and basically been ignored by, Tampa for decades.

Hurricane Hermine didn’t keep the public away from the public hearing, so the City Council late Thursday night approved a new yearly fee to pay for better drainage citywide.

* * *

With the approval, the new assessment will show up for the first time on property tax bills scheduled to be mailed by Nov. 1.

The new fee starts at $45 per year for the owner of a medium-sized home, ramping up over six years to $89.55 annually. Owners with smaller homes and less pavement will pay less. Those with bigger houses, larger pools and more expansive decks will pay more. Businesses pay the fee, too.

The fee will stay in place for 30 years, financing a $251 million drainage improvement program.

Doing something about the awful drainage is definitely necessary, especially in South Tampa, though the focus on South Tampa is, to some, problematic.  While it may be necessary, the drainage issue appears to many like taxing the less wealthy to pay for the benefit of the wealthier.  You can argue about that from many angles – and we are not going to get into it, but that certainly is one issue, which may account for part of the reason this issue has festered. (Perhaps much more CIT money should have been used to fix it a while ago.)

Nevertheless, there is now a plan. And there were some odd things in it:

Exempt from the fee will be areas like New Tampa, Harbour Island and MacDill Air Force Base, which already have drainage systems that do not discharge water to the city’s storm sewers.

Which is at once both reasonable and not in keeping with the tax everyone for the benefit of the city as a whole idea.

And there is this:

As part of the new fee, the city is creating a hardship program to pay the fee for older homeowners who are disabled or are disabled veterans, who live in homes assessed at less than $100,000 and whose incomes do not exceed set limits.

The city also has tried to make it easier for property owners to apply for a mitigation credit to lower either fee because their property was designed to keep water from flowing into the street.

Still, the mitigation policy is flawed, said Gina Grimes, an attorney for four car dealerships that will pay $1 million over the assessment’s 30-year term. Property in New Tampa and Harbour Island pays nothing, she said, but property owners elsewhere in the city can’t get a credit of more than 10 percent, no matter how good their on-site stormwater systems are.

“Is that fair and reasonable?” she asked.

City officials said that work to refine the mitigation policy is already under way, with an engineering study and recommendations due to the council in March.

A hardship program makes sense, though there are other ways to do it.  And it also seems odd to pass a tax (fee, whatever) before you know what you are going to do or what is fair.

Charlie Miranda and Frank Reddick voted no. Reddick said the fee would hit the poor and elderly too hard. Miranda said no one could say how much relief it would provide.

“The good people who live in this city deserve a better plan than this to solve this problem,” he said.

That seems to be true.  This problem has been around for decades and still the fix and its effectiveness is unclear?

The most interesting thing about all this is how it has taken so long to fix something has for decades been an obvious problem.  The weakness of local politics can be seen in that.  The delays have not made it any cheaper to fix, and it is not clear it will really get fixed now (though it might get better).  Sounds a lot like transportation – and this was just the City government.

— More Half Measures

And it is not the only time recently that the City Council has passed an odd law that they admit will need to be changed.  Just a few weeks ago, they passed a noise ordinance that included a very strange provision for South Howard.

The noise of people talking across desks and bustling around an air-conditioned office registers a “comfortable” 55 decibels, according to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders.

That also just happens to be the upper noise limit that late-night SoHo bars and restaurants must not exceed if they want to remain on the right side of Tampa noise regulations.

Which is pretty silly, and brought this:

Council members voted 6-1 to adopt the new law but acknowledged they have some work to do to accommodate the concerns of SoHo residents with the area’s vibrant dining and bar scene.

They plan to hold a workshop at the end of September to figure out if they need to make changes to noise limits. 

In other words, act first, ask questions later, which is just as odd as doing nothing (if not odder).  It does not solve the problem of balancing South Howard and the residential areas around it.  It answers nothing going forward. It is just a planning mess.

And it makes one wonder what will happen in other areas of the city that are just now developing – like “North Hyde Park.”  Does anyone actually have a real vision or are we just going to revisit all these same messes perpetually?

Transportation – Red Light Cameras

While the red light camera issue has been out there for a while, we have refrained from commenting for a variety of reasons.  This week, there was news that Tampa’s contract is due to be renewed.

Mayor Bob Buckhorn is expected to face an uphill task in getting Tampa City Council members to extend the city’s red-light camera program.

To help sweeten the pot, city attorneys have negotiated a new deal with camera provider American Traffic Solutions that should give the city a bigger share of fines paid by motorists who run red lights.

The city uses its share of the $158 fines to cover the cost of the cameras and the cost of ticketing motorists, and keeps any revenue that is left over. The new contract would guarantee the city an extra $75,000 per year regardless of how many citations are issued, officials said.

Just how much money does the City get?

Ending the program could also cut off a significant revenue source. After a decline in 2014, red-light violations are back on the rise in Tampa, with the city on track to issue 65,000 citations in the 2016 fiscal year that ends Sept. 30. The city’s share of that could add up to about $2 million.

Maybe, the recent numbers are thus:

But the following year just 41,600 citations were issued. With the state taking an $83 cut of every ticket, that left just $680,000 for the city after it paid the camera company about $2.3 million.

Still, the flat rate contract means the city does better when more motorists are caught.

The increase in violations this year has already seen the city take in $1.2 million after paying $1.5 million in costs to the camera company.

So this is the crux of the debate – is it a revenue source (for the local government and the companies pushing it) or a safety measure?  If it is a safety measure, it seems to be failure.  First, tickets are up, so the cameras may not be changing behavior, except in this way:

The credibility of the cameras also took a knock from a Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles study released in January that found that intersection crashes at monitored intersections rose by almost 15 percent after cameras were installed.

The study included eight Tampa intersections, where the number of rear-end crashes rose from 17 to 26 after cameras were installed — a 52 percent increase.

That does not seem to be making life safer.  And, if the cameras are a revenue source, there is a potential conflict of interest if the City is relying on safety violations to raise money?

Our view is this: the entire program risks looking like a way for a company to make money by selling their product as a safety measure and making it attractive by getting municipalities to get addicted to the revenue.  From the point of view of citizens (rather than officials), without being able to conclusively show that safety has increased, we are not sure what the point of the program is.

TIA – One More

Not a huge deal, but nice nonetheless:

Frontier began flying its new non-stop flights between Tampa International Airport and Las Vegas Tuesday.

The flights will be taking off daily from Las Vegas in the evening at 9:50 p.m. and arriving at TIA at 5:15 a.m. The flight then departs from TIA at 6:50 a.m. and arrives in Las Vegas at 8:50 a.m. local time.

The more the merrier.  Good for the airport.

— ULCC’s

Those who follow such things know that there are a new batch of ultra low-cost airlines in the trans-atlantic market.  Some, like Norwegian, are already serving in Florida markets, like Ft. Lauderdale and Orlando.  This week there was news from South Florida:

WOW air, Iceland’s low-cost transatlantic airline, announced Thursday it will begin the first-ever nonstop service between Miami International Airport and Reykjavik, Iceland — plus connecting flights to Europe — in April 2017.

Service to Reykjavik’s Keflavík International Airport will be available three times a week from MIA for as low as $99 one-way — about a tenth of the cost of current flights to the Nordic country. The airline will offer connecting flights via Iceland to London, Paris, Amsterdam, Berlin, Frankfurt, Dublin, and Copenhagen from $149 one-way, including taxes.

European routes will also be added at Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport beginning next year, in August 2017.

Budget carrier Norwegian Air Shuttle announced Wednesday it will offer twice weekly flights from Fort Lauderdale to Barcelona, Spain’s Barcelona-El Prat Airport from $189 one-way, including taxes. That’s a discount of more than 25 percent over current fares.

We could use some of that kind of thing, even if you have to pay extra for food and all that.

Meanwhile, In the Rest of the Country

As part of our continuing survey of the rest of the country, we feature to another city, Oklahoma City, which can hardly be considered a bastion of liberal thinking (see here) to see that rail transit is not a left/right issue.  Not only is it conservative, it is in the heart of oil/natural gas country.  But it is still building a streetcar.

Construction of the 4.6 mile streetcar line is to begin later this year and when finished in late 2018 will connect downtown’s central core with Bricktown and Midtown.

* * *

A presentation from engineers at Wednesday’s meeting stated construction of the streetcar maintenance facility was scheduled to begin next month and rail would begin to be laid in the street as early as November.

Portions of the route in Bricktown, along Broadway and in Midtown would have overhead wires. But the streetcar will run on battery power through the downtown core where the route will be wireless.

From Oklahoma City - click for website

From Oklahoma City – click for website

And not only that, but there is an idea to cover the interstate through downtown OKC to connect a revitalized neighborhood (they call it an “innovation district”) with downtown.  The idea is in its embryonic stages, but it points to this:

“We look at I-235 as a barrier,” Miles said. “It’s a very well developed north-to-south corridor, a major interstate that moves through the city. The problem is, it’s a divide. Pedestrian traffic now wants to cross it, and it wasn’t made for that. It was made for vehicular crossing.”

Which definitely is not accomplished by doubling (or more) the width of the interstate, a la TBX.

As we have noted over and over, good planning and good transit is not a left/right issue.  It is an issue of good governance.  Other areas seem to easily get it.  You have to wonder why this area finds it so difficult.

One Comment leave one →
  1. Marcus Motes permalink
    September 9, 2016 2:25 PM

    I’ve been following airline prices a lot lately. It looks like there is a lot of competition for Havana in South Florida. I’m hoping Spirit or JetBlue will shift one of their routes to Tampa to introduce a little competition on the route. I’m afraid Southwest is going to price out a lot of folks since they’ll have a monopoly.

    Similar on the transatlantic routes you bring up. Nonstops are great, but it’s always cheaper to connect from Tamp since there isn’t any competition. Would love to see Norwegian enter the market.

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